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The old Hacienda de San Antonio Clavería is practically unknown outside the circles of die-hard Mexico City and Azcapotzalco history buffs. Because it’s currently occupied by the IPADE (PanAmericana University Institute of Business Management), this Hacienda complex was likely better preserved than most others in the City.
The Hacienda came to be towards the end of the 17th century. A first recorded owner was Don Juan Antonio Clavería Villarreales. A wealthy man, he was a merchant and held an interest in the Royal Silver Mines of Pachuca. Having purchased the property in the early 1600s, he dedicated it to San Antonio. The purchase was likely from the family of one of the conquistadors who’d been granted it after the Spanish invasion. This was the case with many of the estates abutting the Calzada México-Tacuba. Clavería lent his name to the Hacienda, and to the broader neighborhood, even to this day.
The buildings we see today are from a bit later. One Domingo de Bustamante bought the complex at the end of the 18th century. It operated essentially as a ranch that produced grain, beef, and wool. It consisted of a main house, two stables, two carriage houses, and a corral for oxen along with other outbuildings. Due the size of the development and it’s many holdings, the property was known as the “Palace of the Bustamantes.” The family retained the property until they sold it in the early 19th century.
The hacienda notoriously hosted the troops of Royalist General de la Concha. The occupation lasted for some parts of 1820 and 1821. The general was preparing for the final battles of the War for Mexican Independence. These took place on the grounds of the Cathedral of Azcapotzalco in what is today the Historic Center of Azcapotzalco.
The main patio survives surrounded by a two story balustraded terrace. A larger house held a small chapel and a smaller home was fitted for residential use. It was long understood as one of the finest examples of residential and agricultural architecture for this period, that is, for late Viceroyalty.” It was restored in 1951 some 18 years after it was recognized as a historic landmark. IPADE purchased the property in the 1970s.
The San Antonio Clavería Hacienda is not open to the public. Even still, it serves as an important anchor and landmark for understanding the broader neighborhood and surrounding areas.
Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México – Coordinación Nacional de Monumentos Históricos. Ficha del Catálogo Nacional de Monumentos Históricos Inmuebles número I-09-00314 . -. Disponible en: http://catalogonacionalmhi.inah.gob.mx/consulta_publica/detalle/10645